Not only did they utilize inks but also liquid gold. The types of objects made were bottles, flasks, vases, and cups utilized for domestic use. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean, along which Muslim countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice, Genoa and Catalonia. Other influential Muslim philosophers in the Caliphates include al-Jahiz, and Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen). In a town named Tuna near Tinnis, was made the kiswah for the kaaba in Mecca. Dynasties often overlap, where a vassal emir revolted from and later conquered his lord. Enough survives to give us access to women's historical experiences, and reveals some vivacious and powerful figures, such as the Sufi mystic Raabi'a al-Adwiyya (714–801 CE), the princess and poet 'Ulayya bint al-Mahdi (777–825 CE), and the singing-girls Shāriyah (c. 815-70 CE), Fadl Ashsha'ira (d. 871 CE) and Arib al-Ma'muniyya (797–890 CE). Muslim engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower, and early industrial uses of tidal power, wind power, and petroleum (notably by distillation into kerosene).  Mongols feared that a supernatural disaster would strike if the blood of Al-Musta'sim, a direct descendant of Muhammad's uncle Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, and the last reigning Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, was spilled. On 1st September, rebels entered Erdogans palace and declared caliphate in Turkey. On the other hand, just as it has been shown above that although the Central Government did not in any way interdict or obstruct the tradal operations of foreigners in early times, the local officials sometimes subjected them to extortion and maltreatment of a grievous and even unendurable nature, so it appears that while as a matter of State policy, full tolerance was extended to the Mohammedan creed, its disciples frequently found themselves the victims of such unjust discrimination at the hand of local officialdom that they were driven to seek redress in rebellion. In 929, Abd ar-Rahman III assumed the title of Caliph, establishing Al Andalus from Córdoba as a rival to Baghdad as the legitimate capital of the Islamic Empire. 11% Greek, 3% Bulgarian, 2,31% Albanic, < 0,1% Hebrew Rise of extremistic imams and influenced people As the size of the harem grew, men indulged to satiety.
There was totally about 47,000,000 rebels and when they was very close to Ankara (17th August), Recyip Tayip Erdogan officially declared civil war.  They ruled as caliphs, for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). A Shi'ite sect only recognizing the first five Imams and tracing its roots to Muhammad's daughter Fatima took control of Idrisi and then Aghlabid domains. After Abbasid´s formation, it was really disgusted by it´s land, so on 6th November, they declared war on Greece, Bulgary, Macedonia, Kosovo and Albania. Apart from the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, navigable rivers were uncommon, so transport by sea was very important. With the Buyid dynasty on the wane, a vacuum was created that was eventually filled by the dynasty of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuqs. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad, Iraq after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region. Latin translations of the 12th century passed on knowledge of chemistry and instrument making in particular. Once in power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shi'a beliefs. Al-Ukhaidir Fortress is a fine example of this type of building which has stables, living quarters, and a mosque, all surrounding inner courtyards.  After several years of peace, Nikephoros I broke the treaty, then fended off multiple incursions during the first decade of the 9th century. . "Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries. The true stock of the present Chinese Mahomedans was a small army of 4,000 Arabian soldiers sent by the Khaleef Abu Giafar in 755 to aid in putting down a rebellion. Early on, it provided the government with a stable force to address domestic and foreign problems. One of the common definitions for "Islamic philosophy" is "the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture. According to Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt was supported largely by Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Marw with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali". The Abbasid Caliphate (, ') was the third of the Islamic Caliphates of the Islamic Empire. https://thefutureofeuropes.fandom.com/wiki/Abbasid_Caliphate?oldid=864076.  Many imitations were written, especially in France.  While their Muslim forbearers led men into battle, started rebellions, and played an active role in community life, as demonstrated in the Hadith literature, Abbasid women were ideally kept in seclusion.  After Rashid's death, the empire was split by a civil war between the caliph al-Amin and his brother al-Ma'mun who had the support of Khorasan. The political power of the caliphs largely ended with the rise of the Buyids and the Seljuq Turks. The Caliph al-Muqtafi was the first Abbasid Caliph to regain the full military independence of the Caliphate, with the help of his vizier Ibn Hubayra.
Wahb-Abi-Kabcha travelled by sea to Cantoa, and thence overland to Si-ngan Fu, the capital, where he was well received. The fact is that most of these Mahometans went to China simply as traders; they did not intend to settle permanently in the country, and when business permitted, they returned to their old haunts. These attacks pushed into the Taurus Mountains culminating with a victory at the Battle of Krasos and the massive invasion of 806, led by Rashid himself. Satiety within the individual harem meant boredom for the one man and neglect for the many women. (2020 - 2022) Muhagamash II. , In the 9th century, the Abbasids created an army loyal only to their caliphate, composed of non-Arab origin people, known as Mamluks.  Another major development was the creation or vast enlargement of cities as they were turned into the capital of the empire. First, starting with the creation of Baghdad, starting in 762, which was planned as a walled city with a mosque and palace in the center. In the 11th century, the loss of respect for the caliphs continued, as some Islamic rulers no longer mentioned the caliph's name in the Friday khutba, or struck it off their coinage.. The reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786–809) and his successors fostered an age of great intellectual achievement. This period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. By 1055, the Seljuqs had wrested control from the Buyids and Abbasids, and took any remaining temporal power.
Instead of focusing on the good of the people, and beneficial factors that could help the Empire, he supplied his fellow rulers with luxuries and unnecessary belongings. That, however, did not occur until the 19th century. Abbasid´s expand [nb 6][nb 7] After the war, these embassies remained in China  with Caliph Harun al-Rashid establishing an alliance with China.  It was also during this early period of the dynasty, in particular during the governance of al-Mansur, Harun al-Rashid, and al-Ma'mun, that the reputation and power of the dynasty was created. By the early 10th century, the Abbasids almost lost control of Iraq to various amirs, and the caliph al-Radi was forced to acknowledge their power by creating the position of "Prince of Princes" (amir al-umara). First settled in China in the Year of the Mission, A.D. 628, under Wahb-Abi-Kabcha a maternal uncle of Mahomet, who was sent with presents to the Emperor. Conquests had brought enormous wealth and large numbers of slaves to the Muslim elite. At the House of Wisdom, scholars of many nationalities and religions translated into Arabic, Greek, Persian and Indian works on mathematics, logic, astronomy, philosophy and the exact sciences, and wrote commentaries on those texts as well as original works of their own. Shaikh Mohamed Khan Bastaki was the first Abbasid ruler of Bastak to hold the title of "Khan" (Persian: خان, Arabic: الحاكم), meaning "ruler" or "king", which was bestowed upon him by Karim Khan Zand. In 656 AH/1258 CE, the year of the fall of Baghdad, and following the sack of the city, a few surviving members of the Abbasid dynastic family led by the eldest amongst them, Ismail II son of Hamza son of Ahmed son of Mohamed,[nb 8] made their way into the region of Fars in Southern Persia. This list encompasses some of the most….
During the 13th century, this Mongol Empire conquered most of the Eurasian land mass, including both China in the east and much of the old Islamic caliphate (as well as Kievan Rus') in the west.
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