He was killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus. Caesarion was named co-ruler by his mother on 2 September 44 BC at the age of three, although he was pharaoh in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority. The Ptolemaic kings and queens had a long family tradition of competing for the throne: sibling against sibling or parent against child.  Details of the narratives in Plutarch are generally challenged and not taken literally. II. Yellow marble, first-century A.D. bust. Cleopatra then named Caesarion co-ruler with his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three for political reasons. Cleopatra compared her relationship to her son with that of the Egyptian goddess Isis and her divine child Horus . There Rhodon, another tutor like Theodorus, persuaded him to go back, on the ground that [Octavian] Caesar invited him to take the kingdom.. Caesarion reappears in the historical record in 30 BC, when Octavian invaded Egypt and searched for him.
Rolf Strootman, ‘Queen of Kings: Cleopatra VII and the Donations of Alexandria’, in: M. Facella and T. Kaizer eds., Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East. Plutarch wrote: â[Caesar] often feasted with her until dawn; and they would have sailed together . Octavian then assumed absolute control of Egypt.  Caesarion's guardians, including his tutor, either were themselves lured by false promises of mercy into returning him to Alexandria or perhaps even betrayed him; the records are unclear. The deaths of mother and son brought an end to the Ptolemaic line of rulers who had controlled Egypt since the time of Alexander the Great. Caesarion was declared “the King of Kings” and known as the “Lord of Lords” during the time of his reign, the last pharaonic dynasty to rule Egypt. Meet history's top ten, red-hot power couples. Octavian gave public approval to the Donations of Antioch in 36 BC, which have been described as an Antonian strategy to rule the East making use of Cleopatra's unique royal Seleucid lineage in the regions donated. Additionally, they claimed that this controversial assumption had been mistakenly used in the historico-medical debate on Julius Caesar's alleged epilepsy to strengthen the notion that the dictator really suffered from that disease.
Occidens et Oriens 19 (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2010) 139–158, Pat Brown, The Murder of Cleopatra: History's Greatest Cold Case, Prometheus Books (February 19, 2013). The matter of Caesarion became contentious when Caesar’s adopted son Octavian came into conflict with Cleopatra. The exact circumstances of his death have not been documented; it is popularly thought that he was strangled. Cleopatra (mother)Venus (divine ancestor)Aeneas (paternal ancestor). rose granite statue, National Roman Museum, Rome. Vatican Museums, Rome. The number given here is the present consensus, but there has been some disagreement in the nineteenth century about which of the later Ptolemies should be counted as reigning. When Octavian invaded Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra sent Caesarion, at the time 17 years old, to the Red Sea port of Berenice for safety, with possible plans of an escape to India. His alleged father, Julius Caesar, had been assassinated several months earlier, and his mother, Queen Cleopatra VII, placed him on the throne to solidify her power as queen of Egypt. If he made it to Berenice, he would have a chance to get out of Egypt and set sail for Arabia or even to India. He is thought to be depicted in a partial statue found in the harbor of Alexandria in 1997. Two years later he also appears at the Donations of Alexandria. Octavian captured the city of Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC, the date that marks the official annexation of Egypt to the Roman Republic. This grandiose title was "unprecedented in the management of Roman client-king relationships" and could be seen as "threatening the 'greatness' of the Roman people". These proclamations partly caused the fatal breach in Antony's relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support for war against Antony and Cleopatra.. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. These proclamations, known as the Donations of Alexandria, caused a fatal breach in Antony’s relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support for war against Antony and Cleopatra. Caesarion was the eldest son of Cleopatra and possibly the only biological son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Later, they had another son named Ptolemy Philadelphus.  This thesis has been disputed by paleopathologist Francesco M. Galassi and surgeon Hutan Ashrafian, who have argued that the first mention of potential epileptic attacks can only be found in 20th-century novels, instead of ancient primary sources. Lover of Cleopatra and father to three of her children, Mark Antony competed for control of Rome with Octavian, Julius Caesarâs heir. Watch how Cleopatra achieved immortality through her personal story of love and tragedy. His formal name was Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar. Caesarion was named co-ruler by his mother on 2 September 44 BC at the age of three, although he was pharaoh in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority. Cleopatra prepares to depart the island of Philae in this painting by 19th-century artist Frederick Arthur Bridgman. It bears the cartouches of Cleopatra and Caesarion. After Octavian offered Caesarion the crown of Egypt, Caesarion turned back from his travels on the advice of his tutor Rhodon — who was perhaps bribed by Octavian — and was killed. Antony granted his three children with Cleopatra the title of royal highnesses and to his son Alexander Helios he promised territories and kingdoms. An Egyptian stele from the Serapeum in Memphis is usually interpreted as recording his birthdate on June 23, 47 BCE, a few months after the Roman dictator Julius Caesar had departed from the country. , Caesarion spent two of his infant years, from 46 to 44 BC, in Rome, where he and his mother were Caesar's guests at his villa, Horti Caesaris. Caesarion was born in Egypt on June 23, 47 BC. It was around this date that Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, “Caesarion” to his pals, the son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra, was put to death by orders of the autocratic Octavian. Caesarion was named co-ruler by his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three, although he was pharaoh in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority all to herself. he summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus. Carter Kane sees Ceasarion’s life in the Hall of Ages. Realizing that their lives were in danger, Cleopatra decided to return to Egypt immediately. , In 34 BC, Antony granted further eastern lands and titles to Caesarion and his own three children with Cleopatra in the Donations of Alexandria. Mark Antony, Caesarâs lieutenant, told the Senate that Caesar had acknowledged to his closest friends that Caesarion was indeed his son. Octavian gave public approval to the Donations of Antioch in 36 BC, which have been described as an Antonian strategy to rule the East making use of Cleopatra's unique royal Seleucid lineage in the regions donated.
(For most Romans, becoming a citizen was the path to power.). (Meet history's top ten, red-hot power couples.). Caesar was saddened and disgusted: Ancient historian Plutarch wrote in the first century A.D. how Caesar had âturned away in horror [when] presented the head of Pompey, but he accepted Pompeyâs seal-ring, and shed tears over it.â. From their union twins were born and named after the astral deities: Alexander Helios (Sun) and Cleopatra Selene (Moon).
Far from the capital, Cleopatra established her own base of operations where she raised an army and bided her time. Caesarionâs only feasible escape route was across these inhospitable lands.
Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great, were engaged in a civil war. Plutarch wrote that Caesar âwould not let her return to Alexandria without high titles and rich presents. Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern invention; the Greeks distinguished them by epithet (nickname). Antony spent the winter of 41-40 B.C. He headed south in the company of his tutor, who took him up the Nile to the village of Copt (Qift), not far from Thebes. Caesarion was born in Egypt on 23 June 47 BC. This gross miscalculation on the young pharaohâs part was a prime opportunity for Cleopatra and her forces. He erected a statue of Cleopatra in the Temple of Venus Genetrix.  The matter became contentious when Caesar's adopted son, Octavian, came into conflict with Cleopatra. After Caesar's assassination on 15 March 44 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion returned to Egypt. Cleopatra hoped that her son would eventually succeed his father as the head of the Roman Republic as well as Egypt. This relationship has long been regarded as one of historyâs most passionate, but historian Mary Beard revealed its more practical side: âPassion may have been one element of it. , There is no historical record of Caesarion between 44 BC until the Donations of Antioch in 36 BC. This declaration was a direct threat to Octavian (whose claim to power was based on his status as Julius Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son). His mother Cleopatra insisted that he was the son of Julius Caesar. Since older sources may give a number one higher or lower, epithets are the most reliable way of determining which Ptolemy is being referred to in any given case. A silver coin to commemorate the conquest of Egypt by Octavian bears a crocodile and the inscription, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/magazine/2020/09-10/egypt-last-pharaoh-caesarion-love-child-caesar-cleopatra.html. in Egypt with Cleopatra. Cleopatra turned her attention to Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius) and won him over. Caesarion embodied his mother's alliance with Rome, but assassination and war would bring about his death at age 17, ending Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.