A 1984 study estimated the EROEI of the various known oil-shale deposits as varying between 0.7–13.3. , Oil shale was one of the first sources of mineral oil used by humans.  Petrobras produces in their Petrosix plant 550 tons of oil per day from 6,200 tons of shale, a yield of 9%.  The pyrolysis of the rock is performed in a retort, situated either above ground or within the rock formation itself.  Because of the losses in 1980s, companies were reluctant to make new invests in shale oil production. Oil shale must be mined using either underground- or surface-mining methods. As of 2008, most oil shale industries perform the shale oil extraction process after the rock is mined, crushed and transported to a retorting facility, although several experimental technologies perform the process in place (in-situ). ", "Global oil shale issues and perspectives. After achieving the milestone of 1 billion barrels (160×10^6 m3), its costs would decline further to $30–40 per barrel ($190–250/m3). One opinion is that internal energy should not be counted as an energy cost because is does not have an opportunity cost, unlike external energy used in the process. It cited a conversion ratio of 650 liters (170 U.S. gal; 140 imp gal) of oil per one ton of coal, as against 150 liters (40 U.S. gal) per one ton of shale oil. The article stated that coal liquefaction was less expensive, generated more oil, and created fewer environmental impacts than oil shale extraction. Shale oil can also contain significant quantities of heteroatoms.  The British Crown granted a patent in 1694 to three persons who had "found a way to extract and make great quantities of pitch, tarr and oyle out of a sort of stone. Some tests involve co-pyrolysis of oil shale with lignite and cellulose wastes. , The production of shale oil has been hindered because of technical difficulties and costs. , Before World War II, most shale oil was upgraded for use as transport fuels. Municipal and other water requirements related to population growth associated with industry development will require an additional 58 million US gallons (220,000 m3) per day.  Due to technically more complex processes, the EROEI for oil shale is below the EROEI of about 20:1 for conventional oil extraction at the wellhead. The term "shale oil" is also used for crude oil produced from shales of other very low permeability formations.  For an oil shale industry producing 2.5 million barrels per day (400×10^3 m3/d), this equates to 105,000,000–315,000,000 US gallons per day (400,000–1,190,000 m3/d) of water.  Co-pyrolysis of oil shale with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has been tested also in Morocco and Turkey. , Hydrogenation and thermal dissolution (reactive fluid processes) extract the oil using hydrogen donors, solvents, or a combination of these. The pyrolysis of the rock is performed in a retort, situated either above ground or within the rock formation itself.  About one sixth of the oil shales in the Green River Formation have a relatively high yield of 25 to 100 US gallons (95 to 379 l; 21 to 83 imp gal) of shale oil per ton of oil shale; about one third yield from 10 to 25 US gallons (38 to 95 l; 8.3 to 20.8 imp gal) per ton.  Additional cracking can create the lighter hydrocarbons used in gasoline. , In 2005, Royal Dutch Shell announced that its in situ extraction technology could become competitive at prices over $30 per barrel ($190/m3). This figure does not account carbon pricing, which will add additional cost. Lack of reliable studies of modern oil shale processes, poor or undocumented methodology and a limited number of operational facilities are the main reasons. These processes convert the organic matter within the rock (kerogen) into synthetic oil and gas. In The History of On-Shore Hydrocarbon Use in the UK", "Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Hence, a 2.5 million barrels per day (400×10^3 m3/d) oil shale industry would require 180,000 to 420,000 acre feet (220,000,000 to 520,000,000 m3) of water per year, depending on location and processes used..
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